Cherry - proper planting, shaping and care
Many of us have childhood memories associated with cherries. And it seems that it grows easily in every garden. But, in fact, this culture is not so simple for some climatic zones, and for many it is given with effort. Or maybe it’s not so difficult? Maybe you just don’t know exactly what she needs? So, we will get to know the cherry closer. After all, it is worthy to grow in every garden plot - unusually useful and unobtrusively beautiful, and without cherry compotes and summer is not summer!
Botanical description of the plant
Despite the fact that the word “cherry” means different types of this culture - finely sawn cherry, felt cherry, steppe cherry, this article will focus on common cherry, or sour (Prunus cerasus). She is a member of the diverse Pink family, a subgenus of the same name Cherry, a genus - Plum. It is a woody plant that can grow both in the form of a tree and in the form of a bush. It can reach a height of up to 10 m, forming a thick, neat crown.
Common cherry is an exclusively cultivated plant. In the wild, not common. In the southern regions it lives twice as long as in the northern ones - up to 30 years. The root system of the culture is pivotal. But most of the roots are located in the upper soil layer horizontally, which provides a large number of root shoots.
The cherry leaf is dark green, petiolate, widely elliptical, with a sharpening. Large enough - 8 cm long. The flowers are white, collected in umbrellas. They have five petals, one pestle and 15-20 stamens.
The tree-like cherry begins to bear fruit 2-4 years after planting. Forms flower buds and on special - bouquet - branches, and on the growth of last year. Her fruit is a spherical drupe, sweet and sour taste, with a diameter of up to 1 cm.
The beneficial properties of cherries
Cherry is rich in vitamin composition, macro- and microelements, organic acids, carbohydrates. In general, this berry is very useful for health - a lot of vitamin A and C, E and PP, group B, phosphorus, potassium, iron, zinc and copper. The advantages are tryptophan and folic acid. And of course - antioxidants.
Due to such a diverse composition, cherries heal the cardiovascular system, helping to improve the condition of blood vessels and blood coagulation, and increase hemoglobin. Improve brain function. Recommended as an antipyretic, laxative cough, improves appetite, mild laxative.
In folk medicine, cherries use not only berries, but also the stalks, and twigs, and bark, which have a diuretic and hemostatic effect. And leaf juice heals wounds well. A decoction in the old days was used for angina.
By the way, in the composition of cherries, ellagic acid was found - a substance that inhibits the development of cancer cells.
Cherry is beautiful in that it has ample processing capabilities. Today it is not only “turned” on stewed fruit, digested for jam, jams and sauces, but also marinated, frozen, dried, dried, canned in its own juice. It goes like filling in cakes, pies, dumplings, pies. A number of hard drinks are made on its basis.
Planting cherries in the garden
In the south, cherries are often treated as a completely hassle-free culture - dug in and wait for the harvest. In order for the plant to develop harmoniously and bear fruit well in cooler regions, it is necessary to know some secrets of its planting.
The place for planting cherries must be thought in advance. It is important that it is bright. Well ventilated. Not in the lowlands - cherries do not like stagnation of air, or dampness at their feet.
The distance between the trees should be at least 3 m, so that the crown is well lit and breathing freely. The distance from the fence is 2 m.
If you are planting not a self-fertile variety, but cross-pollinated, it is not necessary to plant pollinators in a row with the main tree. At a distance of up to 50 m they are quite successfully pollinated. Pick them a place where convenient.
The success of growing any tree begins with choosing a good seedling. For cherries, this should be a two-year-old with a height of the stem 60 cm and a trunk diameter of 2-2.5 cm. The length of the first order branches should be about 60 cm.
When choosing a variety, you should not rely on luck or the advice of sellers. Carefully study the varietal features of the assortment offered in your area, make sure that the variety is zoned. Immediately select plants for cross pollination.
When is the best time to plant a cherry?
Planting a seedling in southern conditions in the Crimea is best done in the fall. Winters are mild here, plants continue to grow root until late autumn, and then from early spring. Here, spring can begin very unexpectedly and immediately with high temperatures. This complicates the survival of the tree when planting in the spring and at times increases the attention it needs (at least, frequent watering will be needed).
In other climatic conditions, planting is recommended in the spring. Especially where winters are frosty and lightly snowy, with frequent thaws and capricious return frosts. But the landing pit can be prepared ahead of time, in the fall. If necessary - to produce soil, cherry does not like acidic soils, and add sand. If necessary, arrange drainage, lay fertilizers. The size of the pit is usually 80 cm wide and 50-60 cm deep.
How to plant a seedling?
When planting a seedling, it is necessary not to deepen its root neck - it should remain at ground level. Cherry does not respond well to a deep landing. Spread the roots evenly to the sides so that they do not bend (for this it is convenient to pour the earth into the landing pit with a cone, spreading the roots in a circle).
To strengthen the tree and help form an even trunk, when planting in a hole, a peg is driven in immediately so as not to injure the root system. The seedling in relation to the support is located on the north side. After planting, the trunk circle is mulched.
In the first growing season after planting, the young tree needs regular watering, mulching, examination for diseases, pests and uniform development.
It happens that due to the prevailing weather conditions, he lacks nutrients. But usually it’s easy to fix it by applying fertilizers or additional watering, and the plant will begin to fully develop.
Do I need to fertilize an adult cherry? Cherry is not particularly demanding on fertilizers, but it is periodically fed. Usually, fertilizing is carried out when the plant begins to bear fruit. Organics are added once every several years. Phosphorus and potassium in autumn. Nitrogen fertilizers, if the tree needs them - in the spring.
The main diseases of the cherry are monilial burn, kleasterosporiosis, coccomycosis. The main pests include: aphids, brown fruit mites, cherry flies, mucous cherry sawfly and a number of leaf beetles.
In the shape of a tree. The formation of cherries begins with the stem, for which leave 40 cm of the trunk. Everything that has grown on a seedling to this height is removed.
The next stage is the formation of the crown. Usually this is a sparse-tier form:
- the first tier of branches - three skeletal branches directed in different directions;
- the second tier of branches - two;
- the last is one, solitary, final branch.
Thus, at the initial stage (which takes 3-4 years), the sparse-tier form should consist of 7 skeletal branches uniformly directed in different directions and located at a distance of about 15 cm from each other. But over the years it will be possible to add more several additional branches, with a calculation of not more than 10 per tree. The plant height for good fruiting should be kept within 2-2.5 m.
Annual pruning of cherries, like other trees in the garden, is carried out as necessary. Dried branches are cut off, broken off, sick. Cut growth. Thin out the crown. At the same time, it is important to remove the excess from the lowest, thickened part of it - that is directed to the ground and near-trunk space. It makes no sense to leave branches in this place - only to overload the tree. The berries here ripen worse, grow smaller and do not gain the desired, albeit small, sweetness.
Bunchy twigs of cherries live about 5 years. New ones grow on annual branches that give growth of at least 20 cm. For this reason, cherries must also be formed in order to stimulate a new growth. To do this, shorten branches that have reached a length of more than 50 cm.
Pruning cherries is carried out in early spring, before the sap flow begins. Complete 3-4 weeks before the swelling of the kidneys.
In the shape of a bush. Often, ordinary cherries are propagated by shoots and grown in the form of a bush. For this, several plants are planted (or left after pruning). Subjugate (cut to the same height) their central conductor (main trunk). And then, they monitor the thickening of the crown of the bush and rejuvenation. At the same time, when rejuvenating, the old branches are cut from the ground, leaving them in place of successfully located new shoots.
In shale form. This type of formation of cherries is practiced in the northernmost areas of crop cultivation, where cherries cannot survive winter without shelter. It begins as soon as the seedling takes root. All new shoots are bent to the ground towards the south and secured with hooks or hairpins. The distance from the ground should be no more than 20 cm. The angle of inclination is 30-40 degrees.
The easiest way to propagate cherries is root shoot. It is her who is usually used by gardeners and gardeners.
In case of cuttings cuttings are harvested in the summer, in mid-July. Cut them in the early morning, before the heat rises, choosing green shoots on the south side of the crown, growing upward. The upper part of the shoot is removed, leaving a twig with a length of 12 cm, with a minimum of 4 leaves.
Prepared petioles are planted in the school - a box with a pre-prepared light substrate, deepening the lower ends by about 3 cm, leaving a distance of 6-7 cm from each other.
The container is placed in a warm, well-lit room. Shade from the direct sun. Cover with a film in the likeness of a greenhouse. In autumn, the school is tempered and dug up for the winter in the garden. In spring, plants are transplanted to a permanent place.
There is another way to propagate cherries - vaccinated. Inoculation is carried out on plants grown from seeds by improved copulation, in a split, in a side cut, or behind the bark (by any convenient method).
A bit about grades
We associate cherry with a medium-sized berry of dark cherry color, but the selection of this culture stepped significantly forward. Today you can find cherries with pale red, with classically red and almost black berries.
It can be rounded fruits, semicircular or heart-shaped. It is very important that the characteristics of the varieties include a description of resistance to certain diseases. And, of course, the need for a pollinator.
Read more about varieties of cherries in the article Cherry - all about culture: description, varieties, cultivation.
Dear readers! What varieties of cherries grow in your areas? Can you advise them as the most productive or frost-resistant? We welcome your comments.